CSSC implements a membership system. Anyone who recognizes its constitution can become a member after the application being approval. Memberships are in the format of personal, group, foreign and student members. Personal and group members are the main body of the organization.
The organizational principle of CSSC is democratic and centralization. The top leadership is the National Congress of CSSC. Delegates are chosen through democratic elections by crop science societies of provinces/autonomous regions/municipalities and professional committees according to the quota assigned by the council or executive council. The last executive council can retain and/or recommend a few delegates depending on the necessity. Congress is held once every four years. Congress can be held earlier or be delayed, if necessary and approved by the council or executive council.
The CSSC council is the governing body during the Congress adjournment. It is elected by representative members with equal or unequal number of anonymous ballots. The executive council, as the permanent establishment, takes on the duties during council adjournment. The executive council is composed of Chairman, vice-Chairman, Secretary General and executive directors. In general, Chairman would not be re-elected, or serve more than two consecutive terms, and should not act as a Chairman of another society inside CAST.
CSSC is under the leadership of CAST and its administrative body is under the leadership of the attached institution. The Secretary General and deputy Secretary General administer their daily affairs under the leadership of the executive council.
When necessary, the council can set up multiple working committees, professional committees or subsidiary committees. Each working committee will be led by an executive director and assist the council to carry out the work. Professional and subsidiary committees are academic organizations representing each discipline under the leadership of the council and are components of this Congress and implement committee system. The qualifications of a subsidiary committee include a group of professional researchers, capability to raise fund and supported by the attached institute in manpower, financial, and necessary materials, the ability to publish journals of their fields, and not overlapping in business property or scope with existing organizations within CSSC.
At present, CSSC has established 5 working committees: academic exchanges and editing committee, popular science education and technology advisory committee, international academic communication committee, youth committee and organization committee. There are 18 professional committees and subsidiary committees under CSSC: Cultivation Committee, Soybean Committee, Hemp Committee, Sugarcane Committee, Barley Committee, Millet Committee, Oil Crops Committee, Potato Committee, Medical Crops Committee, Sweet Potato Committee, Sugarbeet Committee, Special Crop Industry Committee, Corn Committee, Seed Committee, Wheat Industry Branch, Rice Industry Branch, Molecular Plant Breeding Subsidiary Committee, and Oats and Buckwheat Subsidiary Committee.
Provincial-level crop science societies are the components of provincial association for science and technology in corresponding provinces, autonomous regions and direct jurisdiction municipalities. They are CSSC local organizations and are under the leadership of CSSC for business.